These assessment rubrics were designed specifically for preservice and inservice teachers in dual language and immersion (DLI) programs in the U.S., which include:
- One-way second/foreign language immersion – designed for majority-language students (English speakers in the U.S.) who learn the school curriculum through a world language such as Mandarin or Spanish.
- Two-way bilingual immersion – designed for a combined student audience of minority- language (e.g., Spanish speakers) and majority-language (English speakers) students who learn the school curriculum through both languages.
- One-way developmental bilingual – in the U.S., typically designed for Spanish speakers to maintain Spanish and learn English through the school curriculum.
- Indigenous language revitalization immersion – school-based programs designed with the goal of revitalizing endangered Native languages and cultures, such as Hawaiian, Ojibwe, or Yup’ik.
The rubrics may be used with teachers at preschool, elementary, and secondary levels and may also benefit instructors in post-secondary contexts.
The rubrics may potentially be used in other content-based language instruction contexts besides those listed above, such as content-based English as a second language (ESL) instruction, bilingual education, content and language integrated learning (CLIL) programs, and English-medium instruction (EMI) programs.