The references listed below and other sources were used to guide our thinking during rubric development. They informed both the structure of the rubrics and their content. 

Adair-Hauck, B., Glisan, E. W., & Troyan, F. J. 2013). Implementing Integrated Performance Assessment. Alexandria, VA: American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. 

Ballinger, S., Lyster, R., Sterzuk, A., & Genesee, F. (2017). Context-appropriate crosslinguistic pedagogy: Considering the role of language status in immersion education. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 5(1), 30–57. 

Cammarata, L., & Tedick, D. J. (2012). Balancing content and language in instruction: The experience of immersion teachers. Modern Language Journal, 96, 251–269. 

Cloud, N., Genesee, F. & Hamayan, E. (2000). Dual language instruction: A handbook for enriched education. Boston, MA: Heinle, Cengage Learning. 

de Jong, E. J. (2011). Foundations for multilingualism in education: From principles to practice. Philadelphia, PA: Caslon Publishing. 

Echevarría, J., Vogt, M., & Short, D. J. (2008). Making content comprehensible for English learners: The SIOP® Model (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education. 

Escamilla, K., Hopewell, S., Butvilofsky, S., Sparrow, W., Soltero-González, L., Ruiz-Figueroa, O., & Escamilla, M. (2014). Biliteracy from the start: Literacy Squared in action. Philadelphia: Caslon Publishing. 

Fortune, T. W. (2014). Immersion teaching strategies observation checklist. Retrieved from  

Fortune, T. W., & Tedick, D. J. (2019). Context matters: Translanguaging and language immersion education in the U.S. and Canada. In M. Haneda & H. Nassaji (Eds.), Perspectives on language as action: Essays in honor of Merrill Swain. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters. 

Fortune, T. W., Tedick, D. J., & Walker, C. (2008). Integrated language and content teaching: Insights from the language immersion classroom. In T.W. Fortune, D. Tedick (Eds.), Pathways to Multilingualism: Evolving perspectives on immersion education (pp. 71–96). Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters, Ltd. 

Gay, G. (2018). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice (3rd ed.). NY: Teachers College Press. 

Gibbons, P. (2015). Scaffolding language scaffolding learning: Teaching English language learners in the mainstream classroom (2nd ed.). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. 

Guerrero, M. D., & Lachance, J. R. (2018). The National Dual Language Education Teacher Preparation Standards. Albuquerque, NM: Dual Language Education of New Mexico & Fuente Press. 

Hamayan, E., Genesee, F. & Cloud, N. (2013). Dual language instruction from A to Z: Practical guidance for teachers and administrators. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. 

Howard, E. R., Lindholm-Leary, K. J., Rogers, D., Olague, N., Medina, J., Kennedy, B., Sugarman, J., & Christian, D. (2018). Guiding principles for dual language education (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.  

Llinares, A., Morton, T., & Whittaker, R. (2012). The roles of language in CLIL. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Lyster, R. (2007). Learning and teaching languages through content: A counterbalanced approach. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 

Lyster, R. (2016). Vers un approche intégrée en immersion [Towards an integrated approach in immersion]. Anjou, Québec: Les Éditions CEC.  

Lyster, R., Quiroga, J., & Ballinger, S. (2013). The effects of biliteracy instruction on morphological awareness. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 1(2), 169–197. 

Lyster, R., & Ranta, L. (1997). Corrective feedback and learner uptake: Negotiation of form in communicative classrooms. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 37–66. 

Lyster, R. & Tedick, D. J. (2014). Research perspectives on immersion pedagogy: Looking back and looking forward. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education [Special issue], 2(2), 210–224. doi: 10.1075/jicb.2.2.04lys  

Maguire, C. (2018). When language teachers don’t teach language: A narrative inquiry of language-focused ESL instruction in content-based settings. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN. 

Met, M. (2008). Paying attention to language: Literacy, language and academic achievement. In T.W. Fortune, D. Tedick (Eds.), Pathways to Multilingualism: Evolving perspectives on immersion education (pp. 49–70). Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters, Ltd. 

Minnesota Educator Dispositions System (MnEDS). (n.d.). Retrieved from  

Office of Teacher Education. (2014). Evaluation of student teaching. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota College of Education and Human Development. 

Olivos, E. M., Ochoa, A. M., & Jiménez-Castellanos, O. (2011). Critical voices in bicultural parent engagement: A framework for transformation. In E.M. Olivos, O. Jiménez-Castellanos, & A.M. Ochoa (Eds.), Bicultural parent engagement: Advocacy and empowerment (pp. 1–17). NY: Teachers College Press. 

Palmer, D. K. (2009). Middle-class English speakers in a two-way immersion bilingual classroom: ‘Everybody should be listening to Jonathan right now...’. TESOL Quarterly, 43(2), 177–202. 

Snow, M. A., Met, M., & Genesee, F. (1989). A conceptual framework for the integration of language and content in second/foreign language instruction. TESOL Quarterly, 23(2), 201–217. 

Tedick, D. J., & Klee, C. (1998). Alternative assessment in the language classroom. In G. S. Burkart (Ed.) Modules for the professional preparation of teaching assistants in foreign languages. Final Report to the U.S. Department of Education, Center for International Education. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics. 

Tedick, D. J., & Lyster, R. (2020). Scaffolding language development in immersion and dual language classrooms. New York, NY: Routledge. 

Tomlinson, C. A. (2014). The differentiated classroom: Responding to the needs of all learners (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 

Young, A. I. & Tedick, D. J. (2016). Collaborative dialogue in a two-way Spanish/English immersion classroom: Does heterogeneous grouping promote peer linguistic scaffolding? In M. Sato & S. Ballinger (Eds.), Peer interaction and second language learning: Pedagogical potential and research agenda (pp. 135–160). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.